(Belly, midriff, stomach) is the area of the body between the #Thorax and pelvis, starting at the #Diaphragm (top) and extending down to the pelvic brim. (2)

Abdominal Breathing

Frequently seen as the “proper way to breathe”. Focus is placed on the expansion of the abdomen. This method of breathing allows for a large volume of air to be inhaled and tends to lower the #larynx. Can overly increase #subglottal pressure which is not frequently necessary in CCM styles.

Abdominal Viscera

The organs of the abdominal cavity. The solid organs: liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. The hollow organs: stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and rectum.


Opening or Separating of the #Vocal Folds by the #Posterior Cricoarytenoids.

Opposite of #Adduction


The Science of Sound.


The closure of the #Vocal Folds by the #Interarytenoids (IA) and #Lateral Cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscles.

The opposite of #Abduction


The invisible gas that is comprised of mainly oxygen and nitrogen.


The rate of movement of air into or out of the lungs. Measured in cm³/s or ml/s.

Avelolar Ridge

The jaw ridge either between the upper teeth and #Hard Palate or behind the bottom teeth. Usually used to refer to the top Alveolar Ridge. It is used to create the English consonants [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], among others.

Alveoli (Teeth)

Singular: Alveolus. The sockets in the jaw that hold the roots of the teeth. Tooth Sockets.

Alveoli (Pulmonary)

The millions of air sacs or spaces in the #Bronchioles where oxygen is diffused into the #Capillaries and carbon dioxide is released into the alveoli for exhalation. 


The measurement of pressure in #Decibels (dB). Amplitude is represented by the height of the sound wave, higher wave, louder sound. Also defined as: “the maximum displacement or distance moved by a point on a vibrating body or wave measured from its equilibrium position. (1)”


Nearer the front of the body.

Aperiodic Cycle

Noise. Soundwaves that are chaotic, having no regular time-space pattern.

The opposite of #Periodic Cycle

Also, see #Nearly-Periodic Cycle


The bones of the upper and lower extremities. The shoulders, arms, pelvis, and legs.
See also: #Axial Skeleton


A form of breath support. The goal of Appoggio is to maintain the expansion of the abdominal muscles and ribs as long as possible while phonating.

Aryepiglottic Fold

Mucous membrane connecting the #Epiglottis and the #Arytenoid Cartilages. Believed by some to be able to narrow causing increased intensity in the range of 2-4 kHz. Also called Aryepiglottic Sphincter.

Aryenoid Cartilages

Three-sided pyramid-shaped cartilages serve as the posterior attachment point for the vocal folds. The Arytenoids are affected by the contractions of many muscles the Thyroarytenoids, Interarytenoids (transverse and oblique), Cricoarytenoids, and potentially the muscles of the Aryepiglottic Fold; also indirectly by the cricothyroid muscles. (2)

Aspirate Onset/Offset

The beginning of phonation occurs when airflow begins prior to the closure of the vocal folds (onset). The end of phonation occurs when the vocal folds separate prior to airflow ceasing.


The reduction of the #Amplitude of a frequency.

Audible Range

The range of frequencies that can be heard by an individual. The average for humans is 20 Hz – 20 kHz. This range will decrease with age or damage.


The bones middle of the body. The Skull, Vertebral column, Laryngeal Skelton, and Thoracic cage.

See also #Appendicular.